Facial Reconstruction Report

Dr. Martin P. Weaver
Archaeological Reconstruction & Conservation
32 Exeter Close Daventry Northamptonshire NN11 4SY

Facial Reconstruction Report
Date: 28th July 2005

Background Information:

Male skeleton from Whitehall Roman Villa excavation 2003.

Approx height 5ft 9ins, ante-mortem condition good, well nourished. Spine shows signs of heavy work/lifting. Periostitis (blood poisoning) in leg, non-life threatening, was pre-existing. No visible indications of cause of death present in skeleton. Dental occlusal wear examination shows age of 40-50 (modified Brothwell 1981 data). Reported carbon date range: 50BC to 150AD. Skull has moderate post mortem deformation due to burial conditions.

Archaeological Director Stephen Young felt that the reconstruction should represent a clean shaven early Roman man rather than the typical depiction of an Iron-age farmer with longer hair and beard.

The reconstruction:

Construction method: Tissue depth-mask over skull cast but with major facial muscles formed. Tissue depth data from craniographs of white European males (Bankowski 1958). Eye brow type: Strong supraorbital margin and brow ridge. Lips from (modified) Gerasimov 1975 data. All other data from Wilkinson 2004 (Forensic facial reconstruction - Manchester method).

Skull condition poor and fragmented, rebuilt onto wire frame to remove post-mortem distortion, too delicate to make cast from therefore cranium and mandible measurements were copied on to a pre-formed skull using foil forms.

Modelled in semi-setting plastic clay with acrylic skin colour coat, hair greying brown, human hair used. Eye colour: Brown. Resultant face/head type is broadly Dolichocephalic - long with protrusive features, this type predominates in England / Scotland, Scandinavia, Northern Africa and some Middle Eastern countries (Enlow 1966)

Martin Weaver

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